The town of Figline Valdarno originated from a castle that originally stood on one of the hills overlooking the fluvial plain of the Arno, mentioned for the first time in a document of 1008.
In territory contested by Arezzo and Florence, the ancient castle was destroyed by the Florentine army in 1252, leading to the development of the market town that was already growing up below it.
In 1356 the Commune of Florence began building the walls that made Figline one of the main fortified centres in the Valdarno.
The most striking element of the town of Figline today is still its almost intact belt of 14th-century walls. Of the numerous towers, only twelve remain, all around the town. The Castle Keep, seat of the Florentine garrison, occupied the west corner of the rectangle containing a building later converted into a theatre.
Especially important among the institutions of Figline Valdarno is the Accademia Valdarnese del Poggio. Founded in 1804 by Valdarno scholars with the aid of the French government that ruled Tuscany at the time, it soon became famous in Italy and throughout Europe for the magnificent collection of fossil bones found in the surroundings and placed in the Museum. The collection and the Accademia were moved later to the nearby municipality of Montevarchi.